Important Update for Foreign Trained Physiotherapists who want to work in South Africa

1. All foreign qualified Physiotherapists are required to sit for an examination conducted by the Board, twice per year.

2. You should also submit the following to the HPCSA (Health Professionals Council of South Africa):

  • Form 49 PT
  • Form 176 DOH
  • Certificate of Status, issued by foreign registration authority
  • Original certificate of Qualifications or certified copies by Notary Public
  • Certified copy of ID document or passport with a clear photograph

Initial Letter of Endorsement

The first step to getting licensed to work as a physiotherapist in South Africa is to get an initial letter of endorsement from the FWMP(Foreign Workforce Management Programme). So you can download the form 176 DOH here

Please ensure you read the Foreign recruitment policy carefully, here are a few clauses to note in the form 176 DOH:

"Application to the FWMP is a mere presentation of your candidature for National consideration to endorse towards further processes.
The Department of Health is finalizing the restructuring its foreign recruitment initiatives.
The aim is to, in the years to come consider mainly and in some instances exclusively those candidates
identified in terms of country-to-country agreements.
The only direct recruitment of individual applicants from abroad will be for those applicants who can submit
documentary evidence of being a citizen of a developed country.
The applications from foreign health professionals who are citizens of developing countries will therefore no longer be entertained on an ad-hoc basis."

"Employment contracts can be up to 3years and non renewable."


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Exercises After having Hip replacement Surgery


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Working as a Physiotherapist in New Zealand

If you are an overseas trained physiotherapist seeking to work in New Zealand, you need to be licensed by the physiotherapy board of New Zealand. This is quite a lengthy process so you need to be prepared for the long haul. The board expects you meet the requirements in 3 major areas:

1. Your qualification and physiotherapy practice experience should meet current Board criteria:

Your school's curriculum by which you obtained your physiotherapy degree should be a minimum of 4years and be sufficiently similar in theory and practice to the physiotherapy curricula undertaken by undergraduates in New Zealand.

The criteria are shown in this table below:

If your undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum is not sufficiently similar to the New Zealand (NZ) physiotherapy curricula, the chances of becoming
registered in NZ are unlikely unless: 

A. Your work history includes being registered and working in a country that does have a sufficiently similar physiotherapy programme and has a similar healthcare system to NZ.
B. You have undertaken a postgraduate physiotherapy qualification that includes supervised clinical practice experience, in a country
that has a sufficiently similar physiotherapy programme and a similar healthcare system to NZ. 

Currently, the countries identified as having the most similar physiotherapy
programmes to NZ include the Australia, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. 

The New Zealand board assesses applications individually, so even if you do meet the criteria described in A or B, registration is not guaranteed.

2. You should meet current Board English language requirements:

If English is your first language (defined as the language a person learns first) and your programme of physiotherapy study was undertaken and examined in English, you meet the Board’s English language criteria. If not you should do IELTS or OET (Occupational English Test)

3. You should meet the Board criteria for recency of practice:

To meet the Board's recency of practice criteria, you must be able to answer 'Yes' to at least one of the questions below.

I. Did you graduate from your primary physiotherapy qualification within the three years prior to the date of application for registration?

II. Have you worked as a practising physiotherapist, whether full-time or part-time, for any period of time during the three years immediately prior to the date of application for registration?

III. Are you able to provide evidence of successful completion of a formal course of university level physiotherapy study undertaken during the three years immediately prior to submitting your application for registration.  This physiotherapy course of study is in addition to your primary physiotherapy qualification and must include clinical practice experience, i.e. a Graduate Diploma, a Postgraduate Diploma or a Masters with a clinical component.

Application Process
There are 9 components of the application and the forms are available for download on their website

Section 1: Forms and Templates
-Application Form
-Curriculum Vitae
-Validation of Work History forms (to be sent directly to the Physiotherapy Board by your referees), or Confirmation of Fitness to Practise form (to be sent directly to the Physiotherapy Board by your referee)
-The Treaty of Waitangi: Referenced Report
- Cultural Competence Reflective Statement
- Physiotherapy practice thresholds key competency templates

Section 2: Mandatory Documents
- A correctly certified degree certificate(s)/university issued qualification
- Complete official academic transcript/diploma supplement(s)/personal record of achievement
- Evidence of personal completion of around 1,000 hours supervised physiotherapy practice in a variety of settings and areas covered, issued by your university
- Complete official university issued academic curriculum/curricula/module/paper descriptors for all modules/papers undertaken as listed on your academic transcript/diploma supplement(s)
- A correctly certified copy of the personal details page of your passport (and any observations)
- A current, original Criminal Conviction Record (or equivalent)
- Current, original evidence of good standing
- Where applicable - English proficiency test results
- Where applicable – Name change documentation

Application fee is a non refundable NZ 1, 532.50

Duration: After the board had received your complete application with supporting documents, the process takes 2-3months.

For more information contact


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7 Myths About Physical Therapy

As a physical therapist, you are daily faced with numerous patients with different mindsets. Some have heard "too much" about physiotherapy procedures while others are totally green watching you suspiciously to see what "magic" therapy you want to give.

Either way it is your responsibility to educate everyone who comes in for physical therapy on what to expect.
Here are 7 myths highlighted by the American Physical Therapy association that need to be "busted".

1. Myth: I need a referral to see a physical therapist.
Fact: A recent survey by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) revealed 70% of people think a referral or prescription is required for evaluation by a physical therapist. However, a physician’s referral is not required in order to be evaluated by a physical therapist. Some states have restrictions about the treatment a physical therapist can provide without a physician referral.

2. Myth: Physical therapy is painful.
Fact: Physical therapists seek to minimize your pain and discomfort—including chronic or long-term pain. They work within your pain threshold to help you heal, and restore movement and function. The survey found that although 71% of people who have never visited a physical therapist think physical therapy is painful, that number significantly decreases among patients who have seen a physical therapist in the past year.

3. Myth: Physical therapy is only for injuries and accidents.
Fact: Physical therapists do a lot more than just stretch or strengthen weak muscles after an injury or surgery. They are skilled at evaluating and diagnosing potential problems before they lead to more serious injuries or disabling conditions—from carpal tunnel syndrome and frozen shoulder, to chronic headaches and lower back pain, to name a few.

4. Myth: Any health care professional can perform physical therapy.
Fact: Although 42% of consumers know that physical therapy can only be performed by a licensed physical therapist, 37% still believe other health care professionals can also administer physical therapy. Many physical therapists also pursue board certification in specific areas such as neurology, orthopedics, sports, or women’s health, for example.

5. Myth: Physical therapy isn't covered by insurance.
Fact: Most insurance policies cover some form of physical therapy. Beyond insurance coverage, physical therapy has proven to reduce costs by helping people avoid unnecessary imaging scans, surgery, or prescription drugs. Physical therapy can also lower costs by helping patients avoid falls or by addressing conditions before they become chronic.

6. Myth: Surgery is my only option.
Fact: In many cases, physical therapy has been shown to be as effective as surgery in treating a wide range of conditions—from rotator cuff tears and degenerative disk disease, to meniscal tears and some forms of knee osteoarthritis. Those who have recently seen a physical therapist know this to be true, with 79% believing physical therapy can provide an alternative to surgery.

7. Myth: I can do physical therapy myself.
Fact: Your participation is key to a successful treatment plan, but every patient still needs the expert care and guidance of a licensed physical therapist. Your therapist will leverage his or her specialized education, clinical expertise, and the latest available evidence to evaluate your needs and make a diagnosis before creating an individualized plan of care.


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Interested in the Canadian Physiotherapy Clinical Specialty Program?

A clinical specialist in physiotherapy practices at an advanced level in a particular area of specialty.

The CPA Clinical Specialty program certifies physiotherapists who have focused their careers and can demonstrate advanced clinical competence, leadership, continuing professional development, and involvement in research in a specific area of practice.

This self-directed program consists of a written portfolio submission and an oral presentation that is assessed by a panel of peers. The components of the program allow candidates to demonstrate their professional competencies and development as a clinical specialist.

The program is targeted to candidates who have a minimum of five years of full-time applied clinical experience and a minimum of 300 clinical contact hours per year for the past five years in the clinical specialty area.

In this self-directed program you have the advantage of
setting your own pace of involvement in the specialization process.

The 4 Program requirements:
1. Advanced clinical competence (5years in clinical practice, 3 of the 5 years in a specialty area, 300 clinical contact hours yearly)

2. Professional leadership (mentoring, participating in clinical education, volunteer activities etc)

3. Professional development activities (academic courses, clinical supervision of students, conferences e.t.c)

4. Involvement in research (use research to inform and guide practice, apply research findings in practice, contribute to a research project

Fall 2017 program entry deadlines:

Applications due: October 31, 2017
Stage I candidate submission due: November 30, 2017
Stage I results: February 28, 2018
Stage II candidate submission due: April 13, 2018
Stage II Case Based Discussions (oral presentation): Scheduled throughout May 2018
Stage II results: August 31, 2018

You are given up to 3years to complete stage I and II of the program.

Stage I : Candidates Portfolio
Documentation and CV
Multisource feedback tool
Clinical reflections

Stage II: Case-based discussion
3 clinical cases
90 minute discussion with assessor panel through teleconference

Areas of Specialty
The 9 Specialty areas are:

  • Cardiorespiratory
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Neurosciences
  • Oncology
  • Paediatrics
  • Pain Sciences
  • Senior's Health
  • Sport
  • Women's Health

Fees for CPA Members:
Application fee: $500 (non-refundable)
Stage I fee: $1200
Stage II fee: $950
Total: $2150

Fees for Non-Members:
Application fee: $500 (non-refundable)
Stage I fee: $2200
Stage II fee: $1300
Total: $3500

 For more information email
Or visit their website


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How to register to work as a physiotherapist in Ireland

As at 30th September 2016 CORU currently regulates physiotherapy as part of 15 health professions.

The Physiotherapists Registration Board at CORU has statutory responsibility for the:

  • Establishing and maintaining a Register of members of the profession
  • Assessing, approving and monitoring training courses for the health and social care professions under the Act
  • Establishing the code of professional conduct and ethics and standards of performance to which Physiotherapists must adhere

Physiotherapists with International Qualifications Registration procedure:

If your qualification is gained outside the Republic of Ireland a letter of Recognition/Accreditation must be provided by CORU.

New entrants with international qualifications must also first have their qualification recognised by CORU before they are eligible to apply for registration.

1. Apply for recognition of international qualification

The process usually takes about 4months and costs €410.

If you have already had your professional qualification recognised by the Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists and hold a letter of recognition you do not need to apply for recognition at CORU.

If you require any additional information on applying for registration please

2. If English or Irish is not your first language, you are asked to provide one of the following:

I. A copy of a qualification acquired and examined through the medium of English or Irish.

II. A copy of a qualification attesting knowledge in the English or Irish language

III. Evidence of previous professional experience in Ireland or another English speaking country

If you can't provide any of the three above then you will need to pass TOEFL .

3. Complete the online application form

4. Supporting documents for online application:

Application cover page

Certified copy of proof of identity
(Current Passport (Photo page) or
New Irish Driving Licence (issued since 2013)
or Public Services Card (as issued by the Department of
Social and Family Affairs) (copy front and back of the card)

Certified copy of evidence of any change of name if applicable

Certified copy of qualification certificate(s) if applicable

Completed and signed eVetting Invitation Form (NVB1) and subsequent online eVetting Application Form (NVB2).

Certified copy of certificate(s) of Criminal Clearance for each country outside of Ireland where you lived for one year and one day or longer from the age of 18 years

2 passport size photographs signed on back

Stamped and signed proof of professional practice form

Additional information in support of your application if applicable If relevant
Statutory declaration signed under oath

Evidence of competence in English or Irish language (if

Application fee for registration is €100.

CORU website

If you want to work with a health recruiting agency that can help with physiotherapy job placements in Ireland you can contact ateam Health Recruitment if they meet your needs.


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Need Help from a recruiting agency to work as a Physiotherapist in the UK?

If you're thinking of working as a physiotherapist in the UK and don't know how to start the HCPC process, this information may be helpful to you.

Many recruiting agencies based in the UK don't seem to focus on foreign trained physiotherapists, so that can also make job searching complicated for some.

I found this human resource consultants, Fish Consultores, who are health staff recruiters with links in the UK. They are based in Portugal, though, which can be an advantage to you if you are a physical therapist in the EU.
If you do not live or work in the EU, however, that doesn't stop you from giving them a try.

They say they have a set of protocols and partnerships with employers and British institutions and already have several cases of success in placing professionals in the English labor market.

If you are interested you can send them your CV at

Or check their website


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Award-winning WCPT Congress arrives in Cape Town

The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) brings its biennial congress to the Cape Town International Convention Centre (CTICC) from 2nd to 4th of July.

The award-winning congress is taking place in Africa for the first time and will welcome more than 2,000 physical therapists from 100 countries to Cape Town.

The South African Society of Physiotherapy (SASP) is hosting the event and guarantees a warm and friendly welcome to all, supported by nearly 200 volunteers, principally physiotherapy students from Western Cape universities and SASP members. The Physiotherapy Department at the University of Stellenbosch is also hosting the pre- and post-congress courses.

A WCPT Congress is where the world of physical therapy meets to share the latest research and practice advances, to debate hot topics and professional issues, to network and to learn from experiences across diverse settings around the world.

Alongside the scientific and educational programme a lively exhibition hall includes industry-wide support from a comprehensive selection of global and local companies.

The programme promises to engage delegates and speakers through a variety of session formats and learning styles. The Indaba, a new innovative meeting and inspiration zone, takes its lead from the traditions of meetings in South Africa and features, and includes among other things, a programme looking at global solutions for local problems.

Every day physical therapists make life-changing contributions to patient care and service delivery, as well as important contributions to health promotion and wellbeing. The WCPT Congress showcases the best in physical therapy research and practice to push the profession forward, which delivers direct economic and societal benefits.

WCPT and SASP are ensuring that the congress creates a lasting legacy, with a number of outreach activities. Fundraising has enabled 19 delegates from low resource countries to benefit from a bursary programme and attend the congress. SASP has collaborated with the WoW! (WesternCape on Wellness) initiative through health promotion activities out on the streets, and held a Brain Break Movement competition for primary schools to get children physically active.

WCPT and SASP have also partnered with the Shoes2Move!campaign, aiming to raise much-needed funds to buy new exercise shoes and engage people in community exercise sessions.  Delegates and exhibitors will be encouraged to donate towards the campaign.

For further information (WCPT) please contact: Kiran Acharya,, +44 7534904190

For further information (SASP) please contact: Magda Fourie,, +27 833025365


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Why are physical therapists not appropriately recognized in Healthcare?

It is still very shocking to see that physiotherapists are still not appropriately recognized for the role they play in the healthcare sector.

Someone should please wake me up! Who talks about back pain without a mention of physiotherapy? How long will physical therapists continue to fight for recognition and relevance when their roles are clearly defined?

Heidi Jannenga, cofounder of WebPT, shares her experience at the 2017 Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Conference & Exhibition which took place in Orlando, Florida. Here is an excerpt:

"it was extremely disappointing—more like maddening, actually—to sit through an entire presentation on low back pain without hearing a single mention of physical therapy. 

This discussion specifically delved into the role interoperability plays in ensuring patients achieve optimal outcomes. Sure, several speakers from hospitals and other large health organizations talked about using some of the sameoutcome measurement tools (e.g., the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire and Neck Disability Index) that PTs use every day. But PTs—and our hands-on, non-invasive, patient-centric approach—were left out of the equation completely. 

And that’s not okay—not only because it means we, as a profession, are nowhere near achieving the level of respect and recognition we deserve in the greater healthcare community, but also because it means there are thousands of low back pain patients out there who are paying way too much for dangerous treatments (e.g., surgery and prescription painkillers) that could actually threaten their long-term health and wellbeing.

Physical therapists should’ve been at the forefront of this conversation. After all, low back pain is one of our most-seen diagnoses. 

Even more disheartening: After raising my hand and questioning the speaker’s glaring omission of physical therapy in his presentation, he paused, scratched his head, and said, “That’s a really good point—I’m not sure why or how we would get PTs involved.” 

Talk about a huge slap in the face to our entire profession. PT wasn’t even on his radar—and that should be a major wake-up call for all of us."

How has physiotherapy fared in the healthcare sector in your own country or city? Are you still fighting for relevance trying to convince other members of the team on why physiotherapy should be recommended?

Let me know your thoughts.


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Temporary Travel Jobs for Physiotherapists

If you are looking for locum, temporary or travel jobs as a health professional, that may not be a bad idea.

Physiotherapists looking for travel jobs in the US can look at an average pay of between $42- $47 per hour. Job durations can range from 4 - 13 weeks or more or less, depending on the employer.

Med Travelers is the industry leader in allied travel healthcare staffing, matching qualified allied clinicians and healthcare professionals with thousands of temporary, travel and local assignments, as well as permanent allied career opportunities, all throughout the United States.

Check for travel jobs


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Changes in Australian Citizenship Requirements

Australian Citizenship Legislation Amendment (Strengthening the Requirements for Australian Citizenship and Other Measures) Bill 2017 has been introduced to Parliament, but has not yet passed and may be subject to further amendments before it comes into effect.

The Bill indicates following changes will be effective for any applications for citizenship lodged on or after 20 April 2017:

General Residence Requirement

The new general residence requirement for citizenship by conferral has been set out in the Bill and is as follows:

You must in general have been present in Australia for a period of 4 years as a permanent resident (this is referred to as the "Residency Period")

You must not have been unlawful at any stage during the 4 yearsIf you depart Australia during the 4 years

the total period spent outside Australia must be less than 365 days, and you must maintain your permanent residence during this time

This is in line with expectations based on the announcement of 20 April and effectively means that you must hold your permanent visa for 4 years, rather than 12 months which was previously the case.

New Zealand Citizens and the Residency Requirement

New Zealand Citizens meeting certain criteria will not need to meet the new general residence requirement, but instead can apply under the previous arrangements where up to 3 years of time spent in Australia on a temporary visa can count towards the residence requirement.

English Requirement

The Bill indicates that you will need to demonstrate Competent English - this would require at least 6 in each band of IELTS or equivalent.

Evidence of Competent English would need to be provided at lodgement for all applicants aged 16 years or over. Failure to provide this would result in the application being considered invalid.

The Explanatory Statement indicates that test results up to 3 years old can be used.

The Bill mentions that exemptions may be set out in a legislative instrument - 

Passport holders of the UK, Ireland, Canada, USA or NZSpecified English language studies at a recognised Australian education provider
Applicants with a permanent or enduring physical or mental incapacity
Applicants aged 60 or over
Applicants with hearing, speech or sight impairment

Pledge of Allegiance

The previous Pledge of Commitment will be renamed as the Pledge of Allegiance. To become a citizen, the Pledge of Allegiance is required for citizenship by conferral for all applicants aged 16 or over.

This will also apply to the following ways of acquiring citizenship which currently do not require a Pledge of Commitment:

Citizenship by Descent - children born overseas to Australian citizen parents

Adopted children (Hague Convention or bilateral agreement)People resuming Australian Citizenship

Children born to a former Australian citizen

People obtaining citizenship due to being stateless or born in Papua during certain periods of time

Automatic Acquisition of Citizenship by Children Born in Australia on 10th Birthday

Currently, children born in Australia and who are usually resident in Australia acquire Australian citizenship by operation of law on their 10th birthday.

The Bill introduces significant limitations on this, and the child will be ineligible for citizenship in the following circumstances:

Children who are unlawful at any stage
Children who depart Australia and do not have a visa to return to Australia
If the child's parent becomes unlawful prior to the birth of the child
If the child's parent has diplomatic status in Australia

Strengthened Character Requirements

The Bill gives the Minister more power to do the following where there are character concerns:
Refuse Citizenship applications
Delay processing of citizenship applications by deferring the date for the Pledge of Allegiance - this delay could be up to 2 years
Cancelling approval of citizenship prior to the Pledge of Allegiance being taken

Cancelling approval after the Pledge of Allegiance
Children under 18 will now need to meet the character requirement. Children 16 years or over will need to undergo police checks. Where there are known issues, Immigration may look into character for applicants aged under 16 years as well.

A citizenship application cannot be approved where a person is:

Subject to pending proceedings for an offence
Serving a term in prison
On parole
Confined in a mental health facility by court order
Subject to home detention or residential program for mental health or drug rehabilitation
A 2-year bar eligibility bar for Australian citizenship applies after serving a serious prison term or 10 years for repeat offenders.

The Minister has the power to personally make a decision on character grounds which is non-reviewable, and the substitute a decision in favour of applicants at the AAT on character grounds.

2-Year Bar where Citizenship Refused

A 2-year bar can apply where a citizenship application is refused on grounds other than meeting the residence requirement. If your applications is refused for instance on character grounds, you will not be able to apply again for a period of 2 years.

Revocation of Australian Citizenship for Fraud or Misrepresentation

Where incorrect information is provided, this can result revocation of Australian citizenship. This can relate to:
The application for Australian citizenship
Entry to Australia - presumably this might include information on incoming passenger cards
Previous visa applications
The fraud or misrepresentation may have been done by a third party, and includes concealing relevant information. Any fraud or misrepresentation which has occurred up to 10 years prior to the revocation can be considered.


Whilst the Citizenship legislation still needs to pass Parliament to come into effect, the release of the Bill makes the Government's intentions much clearer.

Source: Acacia immigration


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Making Physical Activity a Pediatric Vital Sign

Massachusetts Sports Medicine Physician Awarded 2017 ACSM-AMSSM Clinical Research Grant

Press Release:

Andrea Stracciolini, M.D., FACSM, is the 2017 recipient of the American College of Sports Medicine-American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Foundation Clinical Research Grant for her research titled, “The Pediatric Physical Activity Vital Sign: Screening Children for Exercise Deficit Disorder.”

In its fifth year, this collaborative project between ACSM and AMSSM funds a single research award of $20,000.

“Receiving this award from esteemed members of ACSM and AMSSM highlights the national recognition of the dire need to focus health care on prevention of disease— in this case, childhood physical inactivity and the associated adverse health consequences,” said Dr. Stracciolini. “Exercise Deficit Disorder (EDD) is a condition characterized by reduced levels of regular physical activity in children resulting in undeveloped physical literacy. Funding for this study will support the development of a pediatric physical activity vital sign, with the goal of early detection of childhood physical inactivity and treatment with intervention to improve physical literacy and promote long-term physical activity throughout the life span.”

Dr. Stracciolini added: “If validated, the physical activity vital sign will facilitate the detection of poor physical literacy in children by health care practitioners. This model promotes and encourages effective execution of the Exercise is Medicine® initiative and is directly aligned with advocacy efforts of ACSM and AMSSM.

Included within the grant, will be funds earmarked to help will support enhancing Dr. Stracciolini’s data analysis research skills by providing funding to attend two educational opportunities.

 “Many children are not meeting recommendations for physical activity, and declines in physical activity begin at around six years of age. There is a need to raise awareness of this lack of physical activity. The grant by Dr. Stracciolini seeks to develop a clinically useful, sensitive and specific Physical Activity Vital Sign to screen children using a brief questionnaire,” said ACSM and AMSSM member Steven Stovitz, M.D., FACSM, who chaired the joint organization review committee. “The grant committee, composed of members from both ACSM and AMSSM, felt that this proposal will assist clinicians to recognize children who are insufficiently active. Ultimately, this may assist efforts to increase physical activity in children and improve our nation's health.”

Dr. Stracciolini is a full-time attending physician in primary care sports medicine and the director of dance medicine at the Boston Children's Hospital. She also serves as an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School.

Throughout her career as a pediatric emergency medicine and primary care sports medicine physician, Dr. Stracciolini has strived to make teaching a priority, while providing comprehensive clinical care to all of her patients. She has been able to further her career academically and clinicall, with a special focus on sports and dance injury prevention, exercise promotion in children and musculoskeletal ultrasound. Lecturing internationally, nationally and regionally has been a priority throughout her career.

Teaching others what she has learned from leaders in the field of sports medicine at Boston Children’s Hospital is a critical and inherent part of her academic career. her work with pediatric exercise science specialists has been pivotal to her career development. Dr. Stracciolini’s goal is to promote the early diagnosis and treatment of children who are exercise deficient and tourther her research on exercise promotion and injury prevention in young children.She will continue to strive to learn and build skills in new and exciting ways and educate those in her path.

The primary purpose of the ACSM-AMSSMF Clinical Research Grant Award is to foster original scientific investigations with a strong clinical focus among physician members of ACSM and AMSSM. A secondary intent of the grant program is to foster the development of the principal investigator’s research education by requiring that a portion of the funds to be applied to meet this goal. The review committee sought research proposals that investigate research questions within the broad discipline of sports medicine. The criteria required proposals to be led by physicians who are members of both ACSM and AMSSM.


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PT Live Online Review Course

The live NPTE Mastermind Online Review Course is an innovative and fun review course helping Physical Therapists pass the board exam to practice in the US.

Founded by Will Crane DPT, PT Final Exam has become a one-stop-shop for your exam preparation.

Included in the course are:

  • 1 FREE practice examination
  • 8-week INTENSE study course
  • Over 25 Webinars reviewing key NPTE material
  • Covers the ENTIRE content outline of the NPTE
  • Access to recordings of the study sessions
  • IN DEPTH discussions and study guides
  • COACHING available via email, phone, or skype as needed
  • DETAILED discussion of sample test questions
  • Access to recorded study sessions 24/7
  • On-demand video library of a multitude of PT topics
  • Searchable database of relevant student questions
  • Weekly assignments guide you through the entire FSBPT content outline

More information


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New Changes to Australia Citizenship Requirements

The Australian government has made some changes to the requirements needed to become an Australian citizen. The requirements will apply to applications made after April 20, 2017.

The Australian Government is strengthening the requirements to become an Australian citizen. This includes:

  • Increasing the general residence requirement, which means an applicant for Australian citizenship will need to demonstrate a minimum of four years permanent residence immediately prior to their application for citizenship 
  • Introducing an English language test, which means applicants will need to demonstrate competent English language listening, speaking, reading and writing skills before being able to sit the citizenship test
  • Strengthening the Australian Values Statement to include reference to allegiance to Australia and require applicants to make an undertaking to integrate into and contribute to the Australian community
  • Strengthening the test for Australian citizenship through the addition of new test questions about Australian values, and the privileges and responsibilities of Australian citizenship
  • Introducing a requirement for applicants to demonstrate their integration into the Australian community
  • Strengthening the Pledge of commitment as a citizen of the Commonwealth of Australia in the Australian Citizenship Act 2007 to refer to allegiance to Australia; and extending the requirement for individuals aged 16 years and over to make the Pledge to all streams of citizenship by application, including citizenship by descent, adoption and resumption.


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Australia 457 Visa to be abolished

On 18 April 2017, the Australian Government announced that the Temporary Work (Skilled) visa (subclass 457 visa) will be abolished and replaced with the completely new Temporary Skill Shortage (TSS) visa in March 2018.

The TSS visa programme will be comprised of a Short-Term stream of up to two years and a Medium-Term stream of up to four years and will support businesses in addressing genuine skill shortages in their workforce and will contain a number of safeguards which prioritise Australian workers.

Joint media release with the Hon. Malcolm Turnbull MP, Prime Minister - Putting Australian workers first

The Turnbull Government will safeguard Australian jobs by abolishing the Subclass 457 Visa for foreign workers and creating a new temporary visa restricted to critical skills shortages.

This will ensure Australian workers are given the absolute first priority for jobs, while businesses will be able to temporarily access the critical skills they need to grow if skilled Australians workers are not available. 

The Subclass 457 Visa will be abolished and replaced with the Temporary Skill Shortage Visa. The new visa will include mandatory criminal checks and tighter English language requirements.

The new Temporary Skill Shortage Visa programme will comprise two streams – Short Term and Medium Term – and will be underpinned by more focused occupation lists that are responsive to genuine skill needs and regional variations across Australia.

Short term visas will be issued for two years, while medium term visas will be issued only for more critical skills shortages and for up to four years.

Both streams will include mandatory labour market testing with limited exemptions; a new non-discriminatory workforce test; mandatory criminal history checks; a market salary rate assessment and a new two-year work experience requirement.

Additionally there will be tightened English language requirements for the Medium Term Stream.

The new visa will also include a strengthened training obligation for employers sponsoring foreign skilled workers to provide enhanced training outcomes for Australians in high-need industries and occupations. 

These changes will give Australian job seekers more opportunity to find work while finding the right balance so businesses can prosper by acquiring the expertise they need.

Migration is an integral part of the Australian story and its success has helped us become the world’s most successful multicultural nation.

There is no doubt foreign workers have played a significant role in the remarkable economic growth of the nation.

More than 100,000 workers from 30 countries helped build the Snowy Hydro Scheme while John Howard’s decision to focus our permanent migration programme on bringing in skills has helped the nation enjoy more than two decades of continued economic growth.

This will continue but not at the expense of Australians finding work. Unlike Labor, the Turnbull government will always put Australian workers first.

Bill Shorten sold out Australian workers by allowing a record number of foreign workers into the country, many not filling critical skill shortages.

More than 110,000 foreign workers entered the country in 2013 under the then Labor government. Some were allowed to work in the fast food sector at the expense of young Australians who were looking for work.

That will not happen under this government. We are making it easier for Australians to find work and we have restored order to our borders so we can ensure foreign workers have an opportunity to arrive through the appropriate channels.

Implementation of the new visa will begin immediately, with full implementation to be completed by March 2018. 

Full details on the new visa and an explanation of transitionary arrangements for current 457 visa holders and applicants is available on the Department’s website at

The Government will announce further measures to strengthen the integrity of Australia’s migration programme and visa systems in the near future.



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Want to Migrate to Australia as Physiotherapist? Read this first.

If you are a physiotherapist interested in migrating to Australia, reading this first will be highly beneficial to you.

Yes physiotherapy is on the Australia immigration skilled occupation list, but my observation is that there are still very few going through their skill select process.

The Australian skill select process (where Canada got the inspiration for Express entry) is supposed to be a stress free process. It's simply a DIY (do it yourself) kind of thing; fill in your information, upload your English scores and you skills assessment and submit your application for immigration.

Twice every month there are selection rounds and successful applicants are invited to apply for a skilled migration visa.

But this is not actually the case for physiotherapists because you need a skills assessment.

Here are the requirements for applying for a skills assessment:

·         A qualification that is included in theApproved Programs of Study list

·         A Certificate of Substantial Equivalence by the Australian Physiotherapy Council

·         A Final Certificate issued by the Australian Physiotherapy Council

·         Current General Registration without conditions issued by the Physiotherapy Board of Australia

·         Current and unconditional Annual Practising Certificate issued by the Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand

Remember if you don't have your skills assessed you can't submit your application for a skilled migration visa.

Let's look at the first option:

Your qualification should be in their approved programs list.

If you have a B.Sc physiotherapy from any of these Universities then you qualify:

Australian Catholic University
Central Queensland University
Charles Sturt University
Curtin university
James Cook University
La Trobe University
Monash university
University of Canberra
University of Newcastle
University of Notre Dame
University of Queensland
University of South Australia
University of Sydney

A Masters in Physiotherapy degree from
Bond University
Curtin University
Flinders University
Griffith University
La Trobe University
University of Canberra
University of Queensland
University of South Australia
University of Sydney
University of Technology Sydney
Western Sydney University

A Doctor of Physiotherapy from
Macquarie University
University of Melbourne

In other words, if you have a Bachelors, Masters or Doctorate degree from these Australian universities then you can qualify for a skills assessment for immigration.

The second option:

You should have a certificate of substantial equivalence
still issued by the Australian physiotherapy council. This assessment costs AUD 2,200.

If you think your university’s program is equivalent to an Australian accredited program then you can go for this option.

It is important to note that this is an extremely detailed and thorough assessment.
The minimum requirements are that the qualification completed must be a

•             Bachelor program four years in length, or

•             Master program two years in length, or

•             Doctoral program three years in length.

 If you do not consider that your qualification meets the requirements above, or if you cannot obtain documents required to meet the assessment criteria, you are encourage to apply undertake an assessment through the Standard pathway.

Some programs from schools in the United States, United kingdom, Netherlands, South Africa, Spain, Scotland, Portugal, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Canada and Brazil, have been found to be equivalent.

Here's  a screenshot of some of the programs:

The third option:

A final Certificate issued by the Australia Physiotherapy Council (APC).

This Final certificate is issued after you have completed the three phases of the general assessment for foreign trained physiotherapists.

Here's a summary of the process:

1. The Eligibility Assessment
This is the first stage which you can complete while you are outside Australia. The main aim of this assessment is to determine if you are qualified to continue to the next two stages. Your transcript is one of the documents that would be required. When you scale through you will be given an Interim Certificate. This stage costs AUD 1100.

2. The Written Assessment
This is basically a written exam you take. There are also exam centres outside Australia. These exams are held four times a year.
Exams in overseas venues are held September and March.
Exams in Australia venues are held June and December
This exam costs AUD 1900

3. The Clinical Assessment
These as clinical exams that can only be taken in Australia.
This assessment consists of 3 practical tests – musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, neurology.
Once successfully passing this stage you will issued with a final certificate which then allows you to apply for full general registration with AHPRA.
This assessment costs AUD 4125

The final certificate is what you need to apply for a skills assessment.

The fourth option:

Current registration with Physiotherapy Board of Australia.

One of the requirements for registration with the board is to have a Final Certificate issued by the APC.

The fifth option:

Current practicing certificate from Physiotherapy board of New Zealand

Please read and go through the requirements, it is a lengthy process and costs NZD 1532.

Get more info

Get more information from APC 

You need to meet one of these requirements to be able to apply for a skills assessment for skilled migration.

If you have a different experience please share.


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Graduate Certificate in Clinical Physiotherapy

Here is a brief summary of the Graduate Certificate course in Clinical Physiotherapy, Curtin University in Australia. This should be great for foreign trained physiotherapists who want to either major in Women's health or Musculoskeletal physiotherapy.

I also think this should give you a comprehensive orientation of how the Australian health care system works and how to work as a physiotherapist in Australia.

This is a 6Month full time course (Part time also available) where you can choose to either major in "Continence and Women’s health" or Musculoskeletal physiotherapy.

Continence and Women's Health
This major will provide you with the opportunity to become an expert clinician in women's health physiotherapy and its related areas of practice. In this major you will develop clinical skills in the assessment and management of conditions which are unique, common or serious to women, or require special interventions in women.
You will develop particular expertise in the management of pelvic floor dysfunction and its presentations, including bladder and bowel dysfunction, disorders of the pelvic organ and pelvic girdle support, sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain.

Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy
The Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy major is designed to enhance knowledge, skill and clinical competencies in muscoloskeletal physiotherapy practice.
In this major you can learn: advanced examination and treatment, advanced patient management and clinical communication skills through evidence-based practice and contemporary clinical practice methods. 

You require :

A bachelor degree in physiotherapy or equivalent

At least 12 months' relevant clinical experience.

Must be registered physiotherapists with the Physiotherapy Board of Australia or be eligible for limited registration for postgraduate training in Australia.

It's essential that all students that partake in a professional program are registered with the Physiotherapists Registration Board of Western Australia.

Application for temporary registration is made in person by providing the Physiotherapists Registration Board of WA with certified copies of physiotherapy qualifications, as well as an original “Letter of Good Standing” (or a Statutory Declaration), dated within six months of the date of making application for temporary registration.

Application for temporary registration should be completed prior to your arrival in Perth for the start of the course. Temporary registration and participation in this professional program will not be possible without proof of (temporary) registration.

Documents to submit with your application

Academic transcript
Award certificate
Academic/Professional Referees
Professional registration license

Get more information


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Where to Prepare for the Canadian Physiotherapy Competency Exam

If you are interested in practicing physiotherapy in Canada, then I'm glad to tell you Canada needs you. However, before you can work as a physiotherapist in Canada you need to go through a licensing process that involves credentialing and taking written and practical exams.

I have written a previous post on how to prepare for the PCE here. This post gives you information on where you can get hands on guidance and preparation for the exams.

PCE Exam Prep Alberta  have designed a Practical exam course which prepares foreign trained physios for the clinical component of the Canadian licensing exam

The Practical exam course is divided into 4 different modules:





​Each module is covered in 2-3 classes based on the students needs. 
Every week students are given topics to read and the exam instructors go through an initial classroom session and hands on practical session. Participants are taught the various assesment strategies used in Canadian physiotherapy schools. 

​Each pce practical exam course includes two mock exams within 16 stations.

Preparation for the Written Exam

The theory exam course consists of one to one classes at their teaching location and is also streamed live online. 

They have also developed a 500 page supplementary written material which includes each and every topic covered in the written exam. 

This guide is the most extensive study guide available in Canada which is designed according to Canadian university teaching system.  

This guide includes details and every topics like Ethics, Musculoskeletal, Neuro, Cardio, Paediatrics etc.

For more information you can email or visit their website

Ensure you are fully convinced and satisfied with what they are offering before you make any payments.

Wishing you all the best.


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How to Use Foam Rollers Effectively and Safely

If you are looking to using foam rollers to relieve neck pain, there are some precautions to observe in order to do it effectively and in a safe way. Outlined below are some of the most helpful tips that you should bear in mind before giving foam rolling a try:

1. Use Foam Rollers on Muscles Alone
The first important aspect to keep in mind is that foam rollers are only used on muscles. It is not advisable to use them on body joints or bones. More so, you should avoid using them horizontally on your neck or directly over the spine. This is because you are likely going to cause more complications to your neck or spine if they are utilized inappropriately. Instead, you should use foam rollers vertically on your neck. Again, they should be rolling out from either side of the spine.

2. How to Roll a Foam Roller
It is highly recommended that you roll it slowly until you locate a tender spot joint. Once you find it, you should then apply pressure gently to the spot until the pain eases completely. Make sure you do not do this for more than 1 minute to avoid causing further complications to your body muscles. If you attend a gym and you need help on how to do this, you should seek help from the gym attendant.

3. Discomfort When Using Foam Rollers
Even the normal massage is not that comfortable. This means that whoever is being massaged has to experience some pain. When it comes to foam rollers, you have to encounter slight pain and uneasiness. This is usually when the rollers are releasing muscle knots. Note that the pain should not be that severe. In case you feel stabbing or sharp pain while rolling the foam rollers on your body, you should stop right away. Always seek professional help before using these rollers to ease your neck pain.

4. Where Not to Use Foam Rollers
You should not apply foam rolling on every part of your body. For example, you should avoid using them on your lower back. This is because low back pain is rarely caused by the back muscles. Foam rollers can make other low back conditions even worse, so never apply them on your lower back.

5. Where Foam Rollers are Ineffective
Although foam rolling is a highly recommended method of easing neck pain, sometimes it may be ineffective, especially on the muscle knots in your shoulders and neck. This is because reaching such muscles is not easy at all. In such a situation, one is advised to go for trigger point massage. This is a bit more effective than foam rollers.  

Foam rolling can be effective if combined with physical therapy, stretching exercises and medication. You should learn how to stretch your neck muscles to help relieve pain. Also, the usual massage can help in curbing the pain on your neck.

If the problem persists, consider seeking immediate medical advice. In case you have other health complications, consider seeing a doctor before trying foam rolling.


TriggerPoint GRID Foam Roller with Free Online Instructional Videos, Original (13-inch), Lime


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Handling the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy at Home

"Handling the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy at Home" software is based on the book "Handling the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy at Home" by Nancie Finnie.

 This software is for therapists, teachers, doctors and nurses to provide handouts with practical suggestions for parents and carers regarding the handling of their child during routine activities.

It includes advice about activities, lifting, handling, aids to mobility, equipment, feeding, fine motor skills, dressing, sleeping and communication plus educational information.

Fundamental to the successful treatment of children with cerebral palsy is the cooperation of the parents in home handling. The age group covered is from infancy up to 5 years – a time when a child is handled and taught mainly by the parents.

Get product here


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Universities in Canada You Can Get a Masters Degree in Physiotherapy

If you are thinking of a getting a degree that will still be relevant in the next few decades, then you should look at physiotherapy. If you are passionate about wiping away tears from the eyes of people, compassionate and patient then becoming a physical therapist may just be for you.

What is Physiotherapy?
Physiotherapy is focused on helping people regain, maintain and improve mobility and functional independence. This involves the treatment of pain, strengthening weak muscles and improving joint mobility. In other words the overall wellbeing of the patient in the priority of the physiotherapist.
(I will work on a post that compiles universities that offer a B.Sc in Physiotherapy)

Where to Study Physiotherapy
Canada is one nice country to study physiotherapy as there is a great demand for physios and the Canadian system favours Canadian trained therapists.
Having a Masters degree can also be an added advantage who want to get better jobs.

Universities in Canada Where you can Get a Physiotherapy Degree

1. University of British Columbia (Vancouver Campus)

Course: Masters of Physical Therapy


In order to be eligible for admission, you must meet the following requirements:

Completion of a recognized 4 year Bachelor’s Degree (120 units/credits) or its equivalent 

Completion of a minimum of 70 hours of Volunteer and/or Paid Work Experience at no more than 2 facilities

Achieve the Minimum Academic Requirements as set out by the Faculty of Graduate and Post-doctoral Studies(which may include having a 2nd class upper first degree.)

Successful completion of the Prerequisite Requirements including Physics, English, Anatomy, Psychology, Statistics and Human Physiology. Applicants are required to achieve a minimum of a B (72%) or equivalent in each prerequisite course. 

2. University of Alberta

Course: M.Sc Physiotherapy

Admission Requirements:

Completion of a four-year baccalaureate degree or its academic equivalent from an accredited post-secondary institution is required.

Minimum GPA of 3.0 on the University of Alberta 4-point grading system or an equivalent standing from another recognized institution is required. However, a GPA of >3.6 for Alberta applicants and >3.9 for out of province applicants on the most recent sixty credits of study is recommended for a competitive application.

Completion of the following pre-requisite courses:

English (3 credits) General course with assessment of reading, writing, literature and essay composition. Can be introductory level.Humanities or Social Science courses will not be accepted in lieu. Business Communication and Technical English courses are not acceptable.

Statistics (3 credits) General course covering basic statistical concepts and data analysis. PTHER 352 is one option.

Psychology (3 credits) Must be from a designated introductory/general Psychology course. Humanities/Social Science (3 credits) 

Human Anatomy (3 credits) Must be a standalone course focusing on gross HUMAN anatomy. PTHER 350 is the recommended course. *Please see the notes below regarding the changes to the Anatomy prerequisite as of 2017 admissions*

Human Physiology (6 credits) Must focus on HUMAN physiology.

Human Movement (3 credits) PTHER 351 is the recommended course. 

Alternatively, if you are a foreign trained physiotherapist interested in working in Alberta, and you have been Credentialed you may consider their 12 Month Bridging program.

Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in Bridging to Canadian Physiotherapy Practice

The Bridging Certificate program is designed for physical therapists educated outside of Canada whose physical therapy education and qualifications have previously been assessed by the Canadian Alliance of Physiotherapy Regulators (The Alliance).

Applicants can apply to the program if they are:

Credentialed by the AllianceEligible for the Physiotherapy Competency Examination (PCE) but want to enhance preparationNot successful in one or more Physiotherapy Competency Examination attempts

This 12-month program, offered in a blended format, consists of five courses: two academic courses, two concurrent mentorship courses, and one clinical placement course. The Bridging Certificate Program operate in the cohort model with one-intake per year, and all students are required to complete all five courses.

Academic course work designed purposely for Internationally Educated Physiotherapists (IEPTs) supports the development of the additional knowledge, skills and clinical reasoning required to meet Canadian entry-to-practice standards. Cultural and workplace orientation is provided through mentorship and clinical placement to help integration into the workplace.

For more information on the University of Alberta Bridging program email

3. University of Manitoba

Course: Master of Physical Therapy

Eligibility requirements:

Canadian citizenship or permanent resident status at the time of application.

An accredited 3 or 4 year undergraduate degree in any area of study, recognized by the University of Manitoba.

A minimum grade point average of 3.25 in the last 60 credit hours* of university-level study.

Equivalent IB and/or AP courses will be accepted in lieu of prerequisite courses.

Successful completion of the Multiple Mini-Interview. 

A minimum grade of a 3.0 or a “B” in the following prerequisite courses:

Human Anatomy (3 credit hours)

Human Physiology (3 credit hours)Introductory

Biology with genetics content (3 credit hours)

Introductory Psychology (6 credit hours)

Childhood Psychology (3 credit hours)

Aging (3 credit hours)

Introductory Statistics (3 credit hours)

English Literature (6 credit hours)

4. University of Western Ontario

Course: MPT (Masters of Physical Therapy)


Admission is very competitive as only 57 students are admitted each year.

Applicants must be Canadian citizens or permanent residents

Applicants who are permanent residents of Canada must submit a copy of the front and back (date on the back must be legible) their Permanent Residency Card as part of the application

A four-year bachelor's degree with high academic standing from a recognized university

Two standard letters of reference (ORPAS Confidential Assessment Forms).One Confidential Assessment Form must be completed by an individual who holds an academic faculty position in a university, who has taught or supervised the applicant, and who is qualified to judge the applicant's academic ability relative to a number of other students. Positions such as a teaching assistant or athletic therapist/trainer do not qualify as academic referees.The second Confidential Assessment Form must be completed by a professional who can judge the applicant's performance and interpersonal skills from his/her perspective as a physical therapist, employer or someone who supervised the applicant working with persons with special needs.It is recommended that neither of the Confidential Assessment forms be submitted by either relatives or friends.Letters of Reference that elaborate on the applicant's unique and exceptional qualities are valued.

Applicant Statement (completed as part of the online application)Maximum 500 words Explanation of why the applicant has chosen Physical Therapy as a career and outlining the applicant's knowledge of the profession and its scope of practiceExplanation of why the applicant has chose the Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) program at WesternDescription of the strengths, experiences, attributes, leadership skills and/or abilities the applicant will bring to the profession. The Applicant Statement should elaborate on the applicant's unique and exceptional qualities rather than just on their aspirations to become a physical therapist

Completion of paid or unpaid Physical Therapy-related experience (submitted as part of online application)

Applicant will be asked to provide a brief list (maximum of 4) of any activities directly related to the physical therapy field, including a clear outline of patient experiences, job shadowing and volunteer opportunities, as well as research, co-op placements and employment.Completion of other volunteer or paid experience (submitted as part of online application)

Applicant will be asked to provide a brief description (maximum of 4 activities) of any other relevant activities that provide evidence of their involvement and leadership in increasing the well-being of individuals, groups or society in general.

Information outlining honours, awards and scholarships the applicant has received to date may be submitted as part of the application (maximum of 4 entries).

Applicants whose first language is not English must provide evidence of English-language proficiency; the TOEFL or an IELTS is recommended.A minimum TOEFL score of 620 (paper‑based), 105 (internet‑based), or an IELTS score of 8 is required.If, after admission, the applicant shows inadequate command of spoken or written English, they must improve their proficiency to the satisfaction of the School of Physical Therapy.They may be asked to withdraw from the program if their command of English interferes with their ability to provide quality professional services.NOTE: Test results must be sent directly to Western University.


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Shockwave Therapy as a Physiotherapy Treatment

Shockwave therapy (also known a ESWT : Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy) is used in various medical disciplines including orthopaedics, physiotherapy, urology, sports medicine and veterinary medicine. The use of this therapy for musculoskeletal disorders has been on for over a decade. The success rate of this therapy, according to research, ranges from 65% - 95%.

A shockwave is an acoustic wave which carries high energy to the tissues resulting in accelerated tissue repair and cell growth with minimal scar tissue production.
Shockwaves are high intensity, high frequency, short duration bursts of energy waves that are faster than sound.

The Shockwave Device
The fixed part of the device generates shock waves which are then transmitted by the system’s probe.
The generated waves are introduced into the body through the system’s probe and cover the area to be treated. Mechanical vibrations from the probe produce kinetic energy which is then converted into acoustic energy transmitted to the tissue.

Therapeutic Effects of Shockwave Therapy

1. New blood vessel formation
The application of acoustic waves causes microrupturing of the capillaries in the tendon and bone (which they are directed) thereby remodelling and stimulating the growth of new arterioles. The production of new blood vessels in the tendons and bones result in accelerated healing.

2. Reversal of chronic inflammation
Shockwaves activate mast cells (key components of the inflammatory process) and the production of cytokines which are growth factors secreted by the immune system. This results in first, the enhancement of the inflammatory process, then restoration of normal healing and regenerative processes.

3. Stimulation of Collagen Production
Shockwave therapy accelerates procollagen synthesis. The therapy forces the newly created collagen fibers into a longitudinal structure which makes the newly formed tendon fibers more dense and stiff and creates a firmer structure.

4. Dissolution of Calcified fibroblasts
Shockwaves break up the sticky calcium deposits on tendons and promote the absorption of the calcium granules while treating the tendon.

5. Dispersion of pain mediator "Substance P"
Shockwaves reduce the concentration of "Substance P" (that relates pain messages to the central nervous system) which results in pain relief.

Common Conditions treated by Shockwave Therapy
Plantar Fasciitis
Chronic Tendinitis
Lateral Epicondylitis of the elbow
Patella tendinopathy (jumper's knee)
Achilles tendinopathy
Non union and delayed union fractures
Avascular necrosis
Chronic diabetic foot ulcers
Calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder

Dr. Kelly's Plantar Fasciitis Treatment 7 Pc Heel & Ankle Support Pack Foot Sleeve Ankle Sock Gel Pads e-Book

Most experts recommend 3-5 treatment sessions, with each session spaced by a week. Application of shockwave lasts 3-5minutes and improvement can be felt by the patient immediately after the treatment. Some may feel sore or experience inflammation within 24hrs of treatment, but that should pass.

Contraindications, Dangers and Precautions

Whilst not intended to constitute a definitive list, there are several areas/pathologies where concern has been expressed with regards the use of shockwave, and until further clarification has been obtained, some of the key issues are identified below. This list is compiled from the best (currently) available evidence and expert advice/opinion. It may be that this is an over conservative approach, but as with many 'new' or 'emerging' therapies, it is normal to err on the side of caution in the initial stages of clinical application.

Lung tissue appears to be damaged unequivocally and should be avoided

The epiphysis has been considered and whilst some experiments demonstrate a detrimental outcome, others do not. Whilst clarification is being obtained, it would make sense to avoid epiphyseal regions

Patients who are haemophiliac or who are on anticoagulant therapy are best not treated with shockwave given that some visible tissue damage (skin petechiae and disruption of the microvasculature) has been noted in several studies.

Malignancy remains on the contraindication list, though, as with other modalities, some experimental work is ongoing whereby shockwave therapies are being employed to try and minimise the growth and spread of malignant tissue. 

Given the unknowns at the moment, it is considered best to avoid such areas.Metal implants appear to be OK with regards bone based treatments, but implanted cardiac stents and implanted heart valves have not been fully evaluated. If however, one is avoiding the lungs, then they should not be exposed anyway.

Infection in the local area should be treated with strong caution given the as yet unknown effect of the therapy in this field.

Joint replacements - interestingly - come up with a mixed result. Some have used the therapy experimentally as a means to help with the removal of prostheses, making extraction easier. Given this, it would seem wise to avoid cemented implants. On the other hand, it is suggested that several researchers have actually used shockwave as a means to stimulate bone growth around an already lose prosthesis (osseous ingrowth). It would seem prudent to avoid the area given the possible loosening effect which, unless desired, would certainly constitute a detrimental outcome.

"Extracorporeal Shockwave therapy in Musculoskeletal Disorders", Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research


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How to Work as a Physiotherapist in Norway

Norway seems to be one interesting European country to study, work and live so practising physiotherapy should also be attractive (well that depends on your preferences).

Even though you'll find quite a number of Norwegians speaking English, it is advisable to pass a proficiency test before applying for authorization.

Here are the steps you need to take to be a registered physiotherapist in Norway:

1. Pass a proficiency test.
You are required to pass a Norwegian language test at level B2 (Common European Framework of Reference of languages, CEFR).  Both the oral and the written exam must be passed.

2. Apply for authorisation with the required documents to have your education considered equivalent to the corresponding Norwegian education.

The form for applying for authorisation and licence as a physiotherapist/health personnel in Norway may be found in the Norwegian form portal Altinn.

All documents required for the application for authorization should be scanned coloured copies of your original documents.

The documents required to be uploaded are:

Your diploma or degree

Your transcript/ a detailed overview of your curriculum.

Requirements for the curriculum:
• The theoretical content must be stated in the learning objectives for each individual subject.
• The scope of each subject must be expressed in either ECTS or the number of hours for each subject.
• The number of work placements or clinical practice studies with each period's length, objective, venue and evaluation results must be stated.
• Practice must be expressed with
– number of weeks or hours or ECTS within each field of practice
– department which include areas /
• List of institutions where your practical training experience is conducted. The curriculum must be valid for those years the applicant studied, e.g. if you studied from 2010–2015 the curriculum has to cover those years.
• The curriculum also needs to provide detailed contact information to the educational institution. Authorization from the country the applicant graduated from and/or the country you have worked in. If your profession is not regulated in the country you have graduated from, or worked in, please inform about this. Detailed work certificate showing where and what you have been working with.

Note that:
All attachments should be scanned color copies of original documents.
- Please do not take photos of documents and attach them since photos are often hard to read.
- Please make sure documents are rotated correctly.
- When scanning documents with multiple pages, please scan all pages to the same document.
- If your application has been sent and you find out that you should have added more attachments, please do not send a new application but send the remaining attachments to Your e-mail should
contain information about the reference number (AR-number) given by Altinn.

3. If your qualifications are considered equivalent, or are  otherwise proven to possess the necessary skills, you then can proceed with your application for authorisation.

4. You will also be required to complete and pass additional courses on Norwegian health services, health legislation and society before authorisation can be granted.

To apply for authorisation, you must pay a processing fee of NOK 1,665 ($195.87). Any costs related to the transfer must be covered by the applicant.

How Long the process of Authorization takes:

Applicants educated within EU/EEA: 4months  
Applicants educated outside the EU/EEA: 7 months

More information:

How to fill the Authorization online application

Physiotherapy clinics in Norway

Apply to visit or live in Norway

Working in Norway

Visit the UDI Facebook page


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